Most of you must be vaguely aware of what Diabetes actually is. In layman’s terms, it is a condition wherein the blood has too much sugar. In medical terms, diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases that affects the manner in which the body processes blood sugar ( glucose ).
The group of diseases pertains to hormone Insulin which is produced by the pancreas and is actually responsible for processing sugar. It removes sugar from the blood flow and provides it to the cells. When the cells have enough sugar it helps to store the extra glucose as glycogen.
When you have diabetes, either the body does not produce enough of it or it is unable to utilize it effectively. If the condition remains untreated, it may cost you your eyes, nerves, kidneys or other organs.
Having this condition makes you adjust to your sweet intake as it is not being processed efficiently. If you have a sweet tooth and find it difficult to do so, you can switch to Nutrashpere’s Diabetic supplement drinks. They satiate your desire while being good for you even with diabetes.
Moving ahead with a few types of Diabetic conditions, there are about four of them.
- Type 1 Diabetes
- Type 2 Diabetes
- Gestational Diabetes
TYPE 1 DIABETES.
This is a chronic condition in which the insulin-producing cells inside the pancreas are damaged. This causes a deficit of insulin. Due to this, the glucose from the blood is unable to reach the cells. This leaves your blood with too much glucose circulating in it.
Type 1 is known to be an autoimmune disease because the immune system is responsible for the damage. The reason for this attack is not known yet.
About 10 percent of diabetic patients have been known to have this type.
- Unexpected weight loss.
- Blurred vision – High blood sugar makes the eye lens swollen. This changes the ability of the lens and affects your vision.
- Frequent urination ( or Polyuria )- Normally, the kidney absorbs sugar while passing urine. But with excess sugar in the blood, part of glucose ends in urine and this pulls out more water. This results in more urine.
- Excessive hunger – With more sugar in the blood, the kidneys try to dilute all of it and end up using more water. A good amount of energy gets used in doing so. Hence, the cells end up starving for energy.
You may develop ketoacidosis. It is a condition where acidic substances like ketones start building up to dangerous levels in the blood.
TYPE 2 DIABETES.
This type of condition occurs when your body becomes resistant to insulin. In later stages, it may not produce enough insulin.
The exact reason behind this is yet unknown. Although, factors like genetics, environment, obesity, etc. can contribute to it.
Moreover, as the body becomes resilient to insulin, the pancreas tries harder to work on insulin production which gradually wears out the cells. This may be one of the reasons.
Due to the inability of the body to utilize insulin effectively, the sugar in the blood ( glucose ) does not reach the cells. This again results in higher levels of glucose circulating in the blood.
The lack of glucose in the cells causes your body to look for alternative sources of energy. About 90 percent of diabetic people have type 2 condition.
- Lack of energy – As the cells do not get as much glucose as needed.
- Dramatic weight loss.
- Excessive thirst ( or Polydipsia ) – Diabetes leads to excessive urination ( or Polyuria ) because of which your thirst may also go up.
- Dry mouth.
These are some early signs that you may have type 2 condition.
If the disease proceeds without receiving any treatment, you may observe:
- Yeast infections.
- Cuts or sores which take a long time to heal.
- Acanthosis Nigricans – Dark patches on the skin. It is a pigmentation disorder that is very commonly observed in diabetic patients.
- Foot pain – Any sort of numbness, pain, tingling sensations in the foot can be a sign of diabetes. This arises because of early peripheral neuropathy.
A higher-than-normal blood sugar level can be a prediabetic condition and not necessarily diabetes. It can pave its way to turn into a type 2 diabetic condition if not treated.
The risk of having strokes or other heart issues also increases in such a condition.
Thankfully, the condition is considered reversible. Lifestyle modification, medication, exercise, etc. can prevent it from turning into type 2. *
While there are no specific symptoms, you may observe certain signs related to insulin resistance. Like:
- PCOS ( Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome ).
- Acanthosis Nigricans.
In case you have been diagnosed with prediabetes, you will observe the indications similar to having type 2.
The doctor may refer to it by having higher blood sugar levels in two conditions:
- Impaired glucose-intolerance ( IGT )- after the meal.
- Impaired fasting glucose ( IFG )- before the meal.
GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS
The higher blood sugar levels during pregnancy lead to this condition. This is because the body produces insulin-blocking hormones. The production of human placental lactogen ( hPL ) starts making your body insulin resistant over time.
It develops around 24-28th week.
Being diagnosed with this condition does not imply that you had diabetes before conceiving or that you will have it after giving birth. However, it does increase the risk of developing type 2 in the future.
In a worst-case scenario, if it is not managed properly, it may increase your child’s risk of having diabetes. It may also increase the complications for you and your baby during the tenure.
The symptoms are very mild and similar to that of early-type 2 conditions.
The bottom line is that there are types that arise from factors you cannot control, just like type 1. While there are others that can be prevented with a few considerate steps. These steps may involve some lifestyle and dietary changes. Nevertheless, if you ever observe any of the above-listed indicators, it is best to consult a doctor and get yourself checked.