Stuttering, like other neuroses, occurs due to various reasons causing overstrain of the processes of excitation and inhibition and the formation of a pathological conditioned reflex. Stuttering is not a symptom or a syndrome, but a central nervous system disease in general. A nervous breakdown in the activity of the cerebral cortex can be caused, on the one hand, by the state of the nervous system its readiness for deviations from the norm.
On the other hand, disruption may be due to adverse exogenous factors. A reflection of a nervous breakdown is a disorder of a particularly vulnerable and vulnerable child’s area of GNI – speech, which is manifested in a violation of the coordination of speech by speech therapy for stuttering along with the movements with the phenomena of arrhythmia and seizure. Violation of cortical activity is primary and leads to a distortion of the induction relationship between the cortex and the subcortex and a violation of those conditioned reflex mechanisms, which regulate the activities of subcortical entities.
Due to the conditions created under which the normal regulation of the cortex is distorted, there are negative shifts in the activity of the striopallid system. Its role in the stuttering mechanism is quite important, since normally this system is responsible for the pace and rhythm of breathing, the tone of the articulatory muscles. Stuttering does not occur with organic changes in striopallidum, but with dynamic deviations of its function.
Reasons for Stuttering
At present, two groups of causes can be distinguished: predisposing (“soil”) and producing (“tremors”). However, some etiological factors can contribute to the development of stuttering, and directly cause it.
Predisposing factors (“soil”):
Neuropathic aggravation of parents: nervous, infectious and somatic diseases that weaken or disorganized the functions of the central nervous system.
Neuropathic features of the most stuttering: nightly fears, enuresis, increased irritability, emotional tension.
Hereditary aggravation: stuttering, developing on the basis of the congenital weakness of the vocal apparatus, which is inherited as a recessive trait. In this case, it is necessary to take into account the role of exogenous factors, when the predisposition to stuttering is combined with adverse environmental effects.
Damage to the brain at various periods of development under the influence of many harmful factors: intrauterine and birth injuries, asphyxiation; postnatal-infectious, traumatic and metabolic-trophic disorders in various childhood diseases.
Physical weakness of children
Age-related features of brain activity; the cerebral hemispheres of the brain are mainly formed by the 5th year of life; by the same age, functional asymmetry in the activity of the brain is formed. Speech function is ontogenetically the most differentiated and late-maturing, especially fragile and vulnerable. Moreover, its slower maturation in boys than in girls causes a more pronounced instability of their nervous system.
The accelerated development of speech (3-4 years), when its communicative, cognitive and regulatory functions quickly develop under the influence of communication with adults. Many children during this period have a repetition of syllables and words (iterations), which is physiological in nature.
Hidden mental infringement of the child, increased reactivity on the basis of abnormal relationships with others.
Lack of positive and emotional contacts between adults and the child.
The lack of development of motor skills, sense of rhythm, facial-articulatory movements.
In the group of adverse causes, there are:
Anatomical and physiological causes: physical diseases with encephalopathic consequences:
- a) injuries (intrauterine, natural, often with asphyxia, concussion);
- b) organic brain disorders in which subcortical mechanisms that regulate movement can be damaged;
- c) exhaustion or overfatigue of the nervous system as a result of intoxication and other diseases that weaken the central apparatus of speech (measles, typhoid, rickets, worms, whooping cough, diseases of internal secretion, metabolism, imperfection of the sound-reproducing apparatus in cases of dyslalia, dysarthria, ZPR).
Mental and social causes:
- a) short-term – simultaneous – mental trauma (fear, fear);
- b) long-term psychological trauma, which is understood as improper upbringing in the family: spoiling, uneven upbringing, imperative education, prolonged negative emotions in the form of persistent mental stress or unresolved, constantly fixed conflict situations;
- c) improper formation of speech in childhood: speech on inspiration, tongue twisters, impaired sound pronunciation, quick nervous speech of parents;
- d) overload of young children with speech material, age-related complication of speech material and thinking (abstract concepts, complex phrase construction);
- e) imitation of stuttering (there are two forms of such speech induction: passive – the child involuntarily starts to stutter when hearing a stuttering speech; active – he copies the stuttering speech);
- e) retraining of left-handedness.