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GitHub is a Git repository hosting service that offers a Web-based graphical interface. It helps its 40 million users across the globe to build software. (https://expandedramblings.com/index.php/github-statistics/) Being a massive code repository, GitHub has information about everything that’s happening in the world of technology. It is difficult to find the most suited programming language as per your necessities as there are many programming languages available. To help you out in this situation, we have made a list of programming languages that are going into 2020 according to GitHub.

  1. Python

GitHub determined the popularity of different programming languages based on Google search

results. Python was searched the most among all other programming languages. According to the report, 29.9 percent of the tutorials were searched for Python while Java had 19.1 % and JavaScript had 8.2 %. (https://www.statista.com/chart/21017/most-popular-programming-languages/)

Python is one of the key programming languages across the globe. It was first implemented in the 1980s and it can be used to develop desktop apps, machine learnings, robotics, Artificial Intelligence, Web applications, and network servers. Frameworks like Django, Turbo Gear, and Pyramids are based on Python and that’s not all. This language has been used to create popular video games like Civilization IV as well.

Python had been updated three times with its last update- Python3- finishing in 2008. Python has been used by large companies like Google, Instagram, and Dropbox for a long time.

Advantages of Python:

  • Easy to learn for beginners.
  • An open-source programming language.
  • It is equipped with user-friendly data structures.
  • Includes GUI-based desktop application.
  • It is scripted instead of compiled.
  • Useful for developing back-end APIs.
  • Offers instructions through official tutorials and documentations.
  • Pliable in nature.
  • Supports multiple platforms and systems.
  • It has extensive support modules and community development.

Disadvantages of Python:

  • It is not the best choice for mobile computing.
  • It does not start with programming basics.
  • Some basic but important concepts are hidden.
  • Being an interpreted programming language, Python slows down.
  1. Java

Java is a highly stable programming language that’s used for building enterprise-scale web applications. It is owned by Oracle Corporation and can be used on Mac, Android, Windows, iOS, etc. This ‘write once, run everywhere’ language provides a software-based platform. Java is an object-oriented programming model and it is used in popular desktop apps like Gmail, Eclipse, Netbeans, etc.

Advantages of Java:

  • Includes an abundant collection of open-source libraries.
  • Easy to learn for beginners.
  • Java Virtual Machine or JVM makes Java-compatible across all platforms.
  • Uses memory allocation feature.
  • Automatic memory allocation and garbage collection clear the cache and cookies.
  • Exceptionally secure as it rejects explicit pointers and includes security supervisor answerable for characterizing the access of classes.
  • Supports multithreading programming and distributed computing.
  • Follow the OPP paradigm.
  • The stack allocation system is one of its best features.
  • Many APIs are provided for completing different tasks like networking, utilities and database connection.

Disadvantages of Java:

  • Memory management is expensive as compared to other languages.
  • The Absence of templates limits data structure quality.
  • It is slower than natively compiled programming languages like C and C++.
  1. JavaScript

A client-side scripting language, JavaScript, is used to enhance the interaction of a user with the webpage. This objective-oriented computer programming language has a syntax that resembles the programming language C. Although they sound similar, JavaScript and Java are not related. While Java is a very complex programming language, JavaScript is only a scripting language. JavaScript is used for a diverse range of applications. It is an interpreted language. Popular websites like YouTube, Facebook, Google, Wikipedia, and Amazon are some examples.  A superset of JavaScript, Typescript can be used to add optional static typing features to the language software.

Advantages of JavaScript:

  • Faster than other languages. As there is no compilation requirement, it runs quickly inside the internet browser making client-side JavaScript exceptionally fast.
  • Simple to use and works very well with other programming languages.
  • It is used to build dynamic applications.
  • JavaScript is used prominently on the web as it is excessively adaptable and highly versatile.
  • It provides a richer interface to a website.
  • Regular updates are made available through the ECMA specification.
  • Community support is better than other programming languages.
  • Several add-ons are available for extending its functionality.

Disadvantages of JavaScript:

  • There can be security issues from the client’s side.
  • It allows only single inheritance.
  • Copy or similar method is not applicable.
  • It can be interpreted differently by every browser as per its functionality.
  1. C#

This programming language is developed and maintained by Microsoft. It is a general-purpose programming language.  C# is an object-oriented language that is used by popular brands like Dell, Visual Studio and Bing for backend operations.

Advantages of C#:

  • Easy to learn. Its linguistic structure is similar to C programming languages.
  • Safer than C programming languages.
  • Easy to compile and has fast execution time.
  • Allows the programmers to work with shared codebases.
  • Supports type safety.
  • Rich set of library functions.

Disadvantages of C#:

  • It is necessary to compile the code every time even a small change is made.
  • Not as flexible as other C languages.
  • It is not easy to resolve errors.
  • Memory deallocation is implicit using a garbage collector.
  1. PHP

PHP or “PHP: Hypertext Pre-Processor” is a widely-used open-source scripting language. It is free to download and use. It is used to create static as well as dynamic web pages and many popular websites like Facebook, Wikipedia, etc. are developed using PHP.

Advantages of PHP:

  • Gigantic community support.
  • Inexpensive, easy to use, and fast-paced.
  • A Wide range of PHP frameworks are available.
  • Built-in web development capabilities.
  • Enough supply of good automation tools for deployment and testing.
  • Supports object-oriented and functional programming paradigms.
  • Powerful frameworks are easily available.
  • Automated customary development activities.
  • No need to write an added code.
  • Allows embedding of the code written in a server-side programming language into HTMK code throughout the Script tag.

Disadvantages of PHP:

  • The process of developing an app can be slower than other programming languages.
  • Poor error handling.
  • Security can be better.
  • The quality of PHP frameworks can differ from time to time. It is very inconvenient considering how much it relies on PHP frameworks.
  1. C/C++

A procedural programming language developed as a system programming language to write an operating system. It is generally used to build desktop applications and is considered to be the base of all programming languages. Programming languages like Java, PHP, JavaScript, etc. are mainly based on C language. C++ is nearly a superset of C language.

Low-level access to memory, a simple set of keywords, and a clean style are some of its notable features.

Advantages of C/C++:

  • An extensive range of libraries and compilers to work with C++.
  • It offers tremendous portability.
  • This language can execute any program faster than most of the programming languages
  • It is easier to “control” as compared to other languages as it supports exceptional handling.
  • Efficient programs result from multi-device and multi-platform app development process
  • It helps to access blocked or hidden objects by other programming languages.
  • It makes debugging and testing the programs easy.
  • It provides a low level of abstraction.

Disadvantages of C/C++:

  • Functionalities like memory allocation and garbage collection are not available.
  • It has complex syntax (C++).
  • Inability to solve modern problems is one of the biggest challenges
  • Difficult to learn for beginners.
  • There’s no strict type checking (C).
  • Manually created high-level constructs are required.
  1. R

R is a programming language that contains an extensive catalogue of statistical and graphical methods. Machine learning algorithms, linear regression, time series, etc. are included in R as well. Many popular companies like Uber, Google, Airbnb, etc. use R. It is most commonly used for data analysis and machine learning. Excellent framework and built-in libraries help develop robust Machine Learning Algorithms.

Advantages of R:

  • Runs on various operating systems
  • Open-source programming language
  • Includes a vast number of packages in the CRAN repository. (https://cran.r-project.org/)
  • As it is highly compatible, it can be paired with other programming languages like C, C++, and Python.
  • Easily integrates with technologies like Hadoop and various database management systems.
  • Complete statistical analysis language.

Disadvantages of R:

  • Utilizes more memory as compared to other programming languages.
  • The base package does not have support for dynamic or 3D graphics.
  • Lacks security features.
  • Programming guidelines are not strict enough.
  • It’s not an easy language to learn.
  • Much slower than languages like Python and MATLAB.

  1. Go Programming Language

Go or Golang is maintained by Google. It is self-hosted, free, and open-source. Google created Go to give developers the experience of writing an interpreted language like Python or JavaScript while providing the benefits of low-level compiled programming language.

Advantages of Go Programming Language:

  • Minimalistic interface
  • More secure and easy to learn.
  • Statically-typed language.
  • Useful for building SPAs (single-page applications)
  • Superfast as compared to other languages as it is compiled to machine code.
  • The standard library offers a wide range of inbuilt functions for working with primitive types.
  • Plenty of third-party add-ons are available
  • Includes automatically generated documentation with testable examples.

Disadvantages of Go Programming Language:

  • Error handling is not perfect.
  • It is very simple and lacks versatility.
  • Complex programs are less efficient due to the absence of a virtual machine.
  • Manual memory management is not available.
  • Insufficient library support.

  1. Swift- 

Swift has replaced Objective-C with its simplicity, ease, and updates. It was introduced in 2014 by Apple at the annual Worldwide Developers Conference. Within 3 years, that is, in 2017, it has seen massive growth. It is used to develop iOS applications but being open-source, applications written in Swift can be exported to Android and Windows. Dependency mirroring, target-specific build settings, customized deployment targets, and the ability to generate code coverage data are some notable Swift 5 features. It can be used with the IBM Swift Sandbox and the IBM Bluemix. Many popular iOS apps are built with Swift. Mozilla Firefox, WordPress and SoundCloud are some names in that list.

Advantages of Swift:

  • Its close resemblance to English makes it easier for programmers to learn and use.
  • Swift library offers string reimplementation with UTF-8.
  • Very fast as compared to other popular programming languages, such as Objective-C and Python.
  • Easier to share code with both frontend and backend development.
  • Module Stability has made it possible for a Swift 5 library to work with a future Swift compiler.
  • Swift 5 defaults to allow exclusive access to memory for Debug as well as Release builds.
  • Its support for callable type significantly improves interoperability with languages like Python, JavaScript, and Ruby.
  • The Swift run command can also import libraries in the REPL without building an executable.
  • Uses modern programming conventions.

Disadvantages of Swift:

  • Altercations and adjustments in each update tend to make it unstable.
  • Interoperability with third-party tools are not enough which makes functionality and connectivity with third-party frameworks difficult.
  • Limited community support.
  • It can be used only for iOS7 or later apps.

  1. TypeScript-

TypeScript is JavaScript for application scale development. It is an open-source language that is created and maintained by Microsoft. It is a JavaScript superset and often called modern JavaScript. It has a static type system. Being a compiled language, its default compilation target is JavaScript.

Advantages of TypeScript:

  • An object-oriented programming language.
  • Types help with code management.
  • Seamless integration of declaration files makes JavaScript frameworks and libraries accessible.
  • Helps the programmers with type checking.

Disadvantages of TypeScript:

  • Very complicated typing system.
  • Requires compilation.
  • It provides a false sense of security as programmers tend to heavily rely on the ability to check types.

As we have seen, programmers can use various programming languages as per their needs. Based on the information provided by GitHub, a programmer can make an informed decision. It is necessary to weigh in the advantages and disadvantages of these programming languages. As per the recent trends, these ten programming languages will be used in 2020. Understand and analyze the project requirements and select the programming language accordingly. For more info: https://mobcoder.com/contact

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